By Haig, Geoffrey L.J.
The Iranian languages, as a result of their unheard of time-depth of attestation, represent one of many only a few circumstances the place a shift from accusative alignment to split-ergativity is de facto documented. but remarkably, inside of ancient syntax, the Iranian case has obtained simply very superficial assurance. This publication presents the 1st in-depth therapy of alignment switch in Iranian, from previous Persian (5 C. BC) to the current. the 1st a part of the ebook examines the declare that ergativity in center Iranian emerged from an outdated Iranian agented passive building. This view is rejected in favour of a thought which hyperlinks the emergence of ergativity to exterior ownership. hence the first mechanisms concerned isn't really reanalysis, however the extension of a pre-existing building. The proposal of Non-Canonical Subjecthood performs a pivotal position, which within the current account is associated with the semantics of what's termed oblique Participation.? within the moment a part of the booklet, a comparative examine modern West Iranian is undertaken. it may be proven that during the next advancements within the morphosyntax, detailed elements corresponding to contract, nominal case marking, or the grammar of cliticisation, in reality constructed remarkably independently of each other. It was once this de-coupling of sub-systems of the morphosyntax that ended in the infamous multiplicity of alignment varieties in Iranian, a indisputable fact that additionally characterises past-tense alignments within the sister department of Indo-European, Indo-Aryan. in addition to information from greater than 20 Iranian languages, awarded in a way that renders them available to the non-specialist, there's vast dialogue of extra normal issues akin to the adequacy of practical bills of alterations in case platforms, discourse strain and the position of animacy, the idea of float, and the query of alignment in early Indo-European.
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Extra resources for Alignment Change in Iranian Languages: A Construction Grammar Approach
Skjærvø (1985: 218) goes as far as to suggest that the m. k. construction shows all the features generally associated with an Agented passive construction: 1) the predicate is a form of the verb with passive meaning, 2) the direct object of the corresponding active structure becomes grammatical subject of the 4 The example with the reconstructed participle xšn¯utam ‘heard’, quoted by Benveniste (1952/1966: 178) and repeated by Statha-Halikas (1979: 350), is, according to Skjærvø (1985), not reliable.
4 The agentless passive with the participle is also solidly attested in Vedic and Avestan, as well as in other branches of Indo-European (Statha-Halikas 1979: 355–356). Viewed from this perspective, the m. k. construction is simply a straightforward participle-based passive, typical of many Indo-European languages, which has been extended by the addition of a (facultative) Agentphrase. Skjærvø (1985: 218) goes as far as to suggest that the m. k. construction shows all the features generally associated with an Agented passive construction: 1) the predicate is a form of the verb with passive meaning, 2) the direct object of the corresponding active structure becomes grammatical subject of the 4 The example with the reconstructed participle xšn¯utam ‘heard’, quoted by Benveniste (1952/1966: 178) and repeated by Statha-Halikas (1979: 350), is, according to Skjærvø (1985), not reliable.
K. construction is subject to a major syntactic rule, that of cliticization. In other words, the cliticization rule defines a class of cases which includes the – clearly structural — Accusative, and the Genitive, but which excludes the other cases (recall that although there are also Ablative clitics, they are not special clitics in the sense defined above, that is, they do not undergo movement to clause-initial position). This constitutes one piece of evidence in favour of considering the Genitive a structural rather than a semantic case, and hence against considering the A of the m.
Alignment Change in Iranian Languages: A Construction Grammar Approach by Haig, Geoffrey L.J.