By Jacky Turner
The decision of whilst, how, how usually and with whom an animal breeds is relocating swiftly clear of evolutionary pressures and in the direction of human reasons: those contain the breeding of round 50 billion mammals and birds for meals creation every year, the breeding of pedigree canine and cats, racing canines and horses, specialized laboratory animal traces and using reproductive technology to preserve endangered species or breeds and to restrict undesirable populations of pests and non-native species. however the ethics and sustainability of this takeover of animals' reproductive lives were insufficiently tested via both execs or the general public. This publication discusses the equipment, the motivations and the implications of human intervention in animal breeding when it comes to animal overall healthiness, behaviour and overall healthiness. It explores the place we're now and the alternatives forward, and appears to a destiny the place we have now extra appreciate for animals as sentient beings and the place lets loosen the reins of reproductive regulate.
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Additional info for Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society
A breeding culture of continuous genetic change will create the need for continuous experimental breeding, probably including genetic engineering and cloning. The techniques used in genetic engineering and cloning increase the risk of abnormal pregnancies and abnormal offspring, involving suffering to both mothers and offspring (see Chapter 2). There is a growing consensus that the pursuit of productivity has led to the breeding of animals that have become less sustainable because of their genetics and the over-exploitation of their genetic potential.
31,36 The remainder are inseminated with semen from beef bulls in order to produce suitably muscled beef cross calves to be sold on either for rearing for beef, or to be used to breed beef cattle. Commercial suppliers offer dairy farmers a choice of semen from a range of proven beef bulls, from the relatively modestly muscled Hereford to the double-muscled Belgian Blue. 37 Dairy bulls are on offer to transmit a variety of desirable traits to their daughters and commercial semen companies provide statistical details on the breeding values of their sires for production, reproduction and health traits.
Modern breeding programmes aim to create the most cost-effective combination of traits for both male and female breeding lines. 19 One reason for this is that pigs breed so rapidly – at least twice a year, and producing at least ten weaned piglets from each litter to select from. In the mid 18th century British pig breeders imported large numbers of exotic pigs from China, the former Siam and Naples, among other places, which were small and round and had been bred to mature early and to have large litters.
Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society by Jacky Turner